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Number of found Records: 152

Archive Archive Archiwy Archiwy Archives
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Bresan, Annett (1969); Jakubica, Mikławš (†um 1563); Frentzel, Abraham (1656-1740) | Places: Oberlausitz; Niederlausitz; Bautzen; Dresden; Potsdam; Lübben; Berlin; Breslau, Polen; Prag, Tschechien; Meißen; Herrnhut; Leipzig; Litoměřice; Lieberose; Wolfenbüttel; Zittau | Keyword: Literature; Handwriting; Document; File; Archival documents; Discount; Sorbs; Historiography; Wends; Church; School; Wendish Preacher Society; Slavic Reciprocity; Societies of Friends; Wends Division; GDR Period; Sorbian Culture Archive; Sorbian Institute; Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska; Sorbian; Oath; Library

Assimilation Assimilation Asimilacija Asimilacija Assimilation
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Kunze, Peter | Places: Zwickau; Meißen; Oschatz; Lübben; Neu Zauche; Lieberose; Guben; Forst; Triebel, Polen; Sorau, Polen; Demitz; Schmölln; Gaußig; Uhyst am Taucher; Göda; Kirschau; Wilthen; Großpostwitz | Keyword: Language Policy; Language Policy; language question; linguistic minority; national minority; Sorbs; Colonisation; Language Bans; Wends; Upper Lusatia; Lower Lusatia; Monastery; Domstift; Sorbian; Dominion; December Rescript; Serfdom; Industrialisation; lignite mining; Bilingualism; Catholic Region; Nazi Era; Immigration; Lusatia; Witaj Model-Project; Church; Clubs and Societies

Auswanderung Auswanderung Wupućowanje Wudrogowanje Emigration
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Mahling, Gertrud (1955); Nitsche, Andreas (1731-1795); Ruschke, Andreas (1755-1810); Lehmann, Johann ; Klien, Ernst Ludwig (1795-1866); Holan, Ernst (1853-1921); Zschoch, Michael (1851-1922); Mirtschink, Franz (1852-1910); Wudowjenc, Karl August (1851); Zwahr, Johann (1821-1912); Schondorf, Christoph Samuel Daniel (1814-1898); Dallwitz, Johann (1816-1863); Kilian, Johann (1811-1884); Kilian, Hermann (1859-1920); Schmidt, Hermann (1851-1925); Kilian, Gerhard (1852-1916); Pallmer, Johann (1831-1873); Proft, Johann August (1844-1896); Proske, Johann Andreas (1857-1943); Kossick, Matthäus (1853-1940) | Places: Hamburg; Adelaide, Australien; Ebenezer, Australien; St. Kitts, Australien; Peter’s Hill, Australien; Bethel, Australien; Bethanien, Australien; Melbourne, Australien; Penshurst, Australien; Hochkirch, Tarrington, Australien; Tabor, Australien; Neukirch; Walla Walla, New South Wales/Australien; Cortnitz; Weigersdorf; Klitten; Kotitz; Houston, Texas/USA; Austin, Texas/USA; Serbin, Texas/USA; Fedor, Texas/USA; Warda, Texas/USA; Wartha (bei Weißenberg); Kleinsaubernitz; Swiss Alp, Texas/USA; Walburg (Texas/USA); Giddings, Texas/USA; The Grove, Texas/USA; Lincoln, Texas / USA; Winchester (Texas/USA); Manheim, Texas/USA; Thornedale, Texas/USA; Noack, Texas/USA; Loebau, Texas/USA; Greens Creek, Texas/USA; Copperas Cove, Texas/USA; Sterling, Nebraska/USA; Spremberg; Senftenberg; Glenvil, Nebraska/USA; Sielow; Fort Madison, Iowa/USA; State Center, Iowa/USA; Zearing (Iowa/USA); St. Anthony, Iowa/USA; Clemons, Iowa/USA; Drachhausen; Green Lake, Kanada; Pembroke, Kanada; Alice, Kanada; Locksley, Kanada; Rankin, Kanada; Woito (Kanada); Golden Lake, Kanada; Eganville, Kanada; Killaloe Station, Kanada; Palmer Rapids, Kanada; Cottbus; East London, Südafrika; Frankfurt, Südafrika; Stutterheim, Südafrika; King Williams Town, Südafrika; Breidbach, Südafrika; Potsdam; Kleinwelka; San Antonio, Texas/USA | Keyword: Abroad; Emigration; Church; School; Religion; Literature; Evangelical church; Emigration; Upper Lusatia; Lower Lusatia; Pietism; Book Clubs; brethren; Assimilation; Newspaper; Newspaper; Monument; Cottbus; Lyrics; Political Turnaround,; Domowina

Bevölkerungsstatistik Bevölkerungsstatistik Statistika wobydlerstwa Statistika wobydlaŕstwa
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Walde, Martin (1951); Mußmann, Valentinus ; Scultetus, Bartholomäus (1540-1614); Knauthe, Christian (1706-1784); Buder, Johann Michael (1713-1789); Schmaler, Johann Ernst (1816-1884); Mucke, Karl Ernst (1854-1932); Tschernik, Ernst (1910-1988) | Keyword: Assimilation; Germanisation; Demography; language situation; Sorbian; Sorbs; Minority; Settlement Area; The Thirty Years War; Foundation; Popular song; folklore; GDR Period; Industrialisation; lignite mining; School; Church; Bilingualism; Sorbian Law; Political Turnaround,

Bibelübersetzungen Bibelübersetzungen Přełožki biblije Přełožki biblije Bible translations
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Teichmann, Doris (1933); Luther, Martin (1483-1546); Jakubica, Mikławš (†um 1563); Schuster-Šewc, Heinz (1927); Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646-1716); Jablonski, Daniel Ernst (1660-1741); Spener, Philipp Jacob (1635-1705); Francke, August Hermann ; Fabrizius, Johann Gottlieb (1681-1741); Korn, Johann senior (1630-1706); Ermel, Christoph (†1724); Fritze, Johann Friedrich (1747-1819); Schindler, Johann Siegmund Friedrich (1758-1841); Frentzel, Michael (1628-1706); Bierling, Caspar Zacharias (1619-1695); Prätorius, Paul (1650-1709); Rätze, Michael (1657-1730); Frentzel, Abraham (1656-1740); Matthaei, Georgius (1652-1732); Běmar, Jan (1671-1742); Jokuš, Matej (1668-1735); Lange, Johann (1669-1727); Wauer, Johann (1672-1728); Swotlik, Georgius Augustinus (1650-1729); Buck, Jacob ; Hornig, Michael (1833-1894); Laras, Hans (1845-1921); Wuschanski, Georg (1839-1905); Resak, Filip (1859-1921); Salowski, Martin (1932-2010) | Places: Niederlausitz; Kurmärkisch-wendischer Distrikt; Schwerin an der Warthe, Polen; Skwierzyna; Halle (Saale); Kahren; Cottbus; Papitz; Kolkwitz; Großpostwitz; Oberlausitz; Bautzen; Wittichenau; Radibor; Dresden | Keyword: The Bible; Old Testament; New Testament; Translation; Church; language monument; Upper Sorbian; Lower Sorbian; Reformation; Dialect; Assimilation; Sorbs; School; Literature; Pietism; Sorbian Institute; Spelling, orthography; Domowina-publishing company

Christianisierung Christianisierung Christianizowanje Christianizěrowanje Christianisation
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Walter, Gerhard ; Heinrich I. (876-936); Huth, Joachim (1914-1992); Blaschke, Karlheinz (1927); Graf, Gerhard (1943); von Merseburg, Thietmar (975-1018); Boso, Bischof von Merseburg (†970); Bruno II., Bischof von Meißen (vor 1209-1228); Burchard, Bischof von Meißen (†972); Knauthe, Christian (1706-1784); Eido I. (992-1015); Benno, Bischof von Meißen (1066-1106); Heinrich II. (972/973-1024) | Places: Meißen; Bautzen; Zeitz; Naumburg; Merseburg; Magdeburg; Lausitz; Göda; Ostritz; Görlitz; Salzburg, Österreich; Regensburg; Hildesheim; Oberlausitz; Gaußig; Neschwitz; Niederlausitz; Ruppersdorf; Herrnhut; Steinkirch; Nienburg (Saale); Niemitzsch, Polen; Cottbus; Doberlug-Kirchhain; Lübben; Sorau, Polen; Luckau | Keyword: West Slavs; Mission; Church; Christianity; Middle age; History; Milzener; Lusizer; glomacze; Domstift; Sorbs; Reformation; Mythology; Pre-Christian Death Cult; lignite mining; Monastery; Colonisation

Cottbuser Kreis
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: von Podiebrad, Georg (1420-1471); Friedrich Wilhelm (1620-1688); Friedrich I. (1657-1713); Fabrizius, Johann Gottlieb (1681-1741); Luther, Martin (1483-1546); Friedrich Wilhelm I. (1688-1740); Friedrich II. (1712-1786); Wille, Friedrich Ludwig ; Friedrich Wilhelm II. (1744-1797); Fritze, Johann Friedrich (1747-1819) | Places: Niederlausitz; Peitz; Cottbus; Guben; Küstrin, Polen; Kostrzyn; Sielow; Jänschwalde; Kurmärkisch-wendischer Distrikt; Krossen; Krosno; Burg (Spreewald); Briesen (bei Cottbus); Lübben | Keyword: Spree forest; Sorbs; lignite mining; Language Policy; Reformation; Wendish Churches; Peasant Uprisings; Pietism; Bible translation; Church; School; Language Bans; Lower Sorbian; Costume; Carnival; harvest ceremony

DDR-Zeit
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Keyword: Political Turnaround,; Assimilation; Upper Lusatia; Domowina; Striving for Autonomy; Brigade Movement; Lower Lusatia; teacher training seminary; Newspaper; radio broadcasting; Theatre; Sorbian Law; Sorbian Culture and Education Office; Bautzen; Cottbus; Sorbian Institute; Institute of Sorbian Studies; Sorbian National Ensemble; Domowina-publishing company; Settlement Area; Sorbian Folk Gathering; School; Sorbian Language Schools; Literature; Composers’ Union; writers’ association; Association of fine artists; Collective farming; Catholic Region; lignite mining; Church; Newspaper; Sorbian People’s Assembly (1989–1990/91)

Gesangbuch Gesangbuch Spěwarske a wosadnik Spiwaŕske Hymnbook
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Mollerus, Albinus (1541-1618); Tharaeus, Andreas (um 1570-1638); Will, Johann Ludwig (um 1710-1771); Hauptmann, Johann Gottlieb (1703-1768); Kossick, Matthäus (1853-1940); Swotlik, Georgius Augustinus (1650-1729); Walde, Michael Johann (1721-1794); Hornig, Michael (1833-1894); Nauke, Michael (1885-1968); Frentzel, Michael (1628-1706); Prätorius, Paul (1650-1709); Hersen, Ernst August (1714-1750) | Places: Kurmärkisch-wendischer Distrikt; Briesen (bei Cottbus); Niederlausitz; Bautzen; Ralbitz; Ostro; Crostwitz; Oberlausitz; Lausitz; Herrnhut | Keyword: Church; Church Hymn; spiritual song; Religion; Reformation; Literature; Book Printing; December Rescript; Domstift; brethren; Spinning Room; Popular song; Folk Literature

Hoyerswerdaer Land Hoyerswerdaer Land Wojerowski kraj Wórjejski kraj
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Bresan, Annett (1969); Frentzel, Salomon Gottlob (1701-1768); Friedrich August II. (1797-1854); Friedrich August III. (1865-1932); Mucke, Karl Ernst (1854-1932); Kopf, David Traugott (1788-1865); Seiler, Andreas (1804-1872); Schmaler, Johann Ernst (1816-1884); Nagel, Johann Paul Horst (1934-1997); Kulman, Jan ; von Schadowitz, Johann Krabat (1624-1704) | Places: Oberlausitz; Wittichenau; Panschwitz-Kuckau; Hoyerswerda; Muskau; Königsbrück; Reibersdorf-Seidenberg; Rybarzowice; Frankfurt (Oder); Liebegast; Lohsa; Merzdorf (Oberlausitz); Uhyst/Spree; Königswartha; Bernsdorf; Ruhland; Burghammer; Särchen; Groß Partwitz; Geierswalde; Spreewitz; Schwarzkollm; Tätzschwitz; Bluno; Litschen; Laubusch; Werminghoff; Knappenrode; Sabrodt; Wolfsfurt; Nardt; Elsterhorst; Spreefurt; Zerre; Neu Laubusch; Schwarze Pumpe; Groß Särchen | Keyword: Upper Lusatia; Heide; Pond construction; state domination; lignite mining; Country history; Catholic Region; Colonisation; Colonisation; Dialect; Costume; Spinning Room; Reformation; Wendish Churches; School; Church; Assimilation; Lyrics; Clubs and Societies; Book Printing; Domowina; Weimar Republik; Nazi Era; Sorbian Museum; Krabat; Custom; Witaj Model-Project; Easter egg; Sorbian Institute

Katholische Region
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Swotlik, Georgius Augustinus (1650-1729); Barth, Jacob (1856-1909) | Places: Oberlausitz; Bautzen; Kamenz; Hoyerswerda; Dresden; Meißen; Görlitz; Wittichenau; Crostwitz; Nebelschütz; Radibor; Ralbitz; Ostro; Storcha; Sdier; Brehmen; Prag, Tschechien; Panschwitz-Kuckau; Rosenthal | Keyword: Wendish Churches; Sorbs; Reformation; Monastery; Decline of Traditions; Upper Sorbian; Wendish seminary; Sorbian; Serbowka; Custom; Easter Rituals; Costume; School; Church; Nazi Era; GDR Period; Book Clubs; Wende

Kirmes Kirmes Kermuša Kjarmuša Parish fair
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Hose, Susanne (1961); Walde, Martin (1951); Johann I. ; Frentzel, Michael (1628-1706); Frentzel, Abraham (1656-1740); Schmaler, Johann Ernst (1816-1884); Haupt, Joachim Leopold (1797-1883); Hortzschansky, Johann (1722-1831); Šołta, Handrij | Places: Panschwitz-Kuckau; Jeschütz | Keyword: harvest ceremony; Custom; Cuisine; Church; Feast; Settlement Area; Folk Dance; proverb; Bautzen; Spinning Room; Popular song; Newspaper; Calendar; Upper Lusatia; Serfdom; Newspaper; Wedding; Domowina-publishing company

Kolonisation Kolonisation Kolonizacija Kolonizacija Colonisation
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Blaschke, Karlheinz (1927); Schurmann, Peter (1961); von Groitzsch, Wiprecht ; Heinrich der Löwe (um 1129-1195); Lehmann, Rudolf (1891-1984); Konrad II. der Ältere (um 900-1039) | Places: Lausitz; Oberlausitz; Lausick; Kühren; Wurzen; Meißen; Panschwitz-Kuckau; Ostritz; Seifersdorf; Deutschbaselitz; Wendischbaselitz; Deutsch-Paulsdorf; Wendisch-Paulsdorf (zu Löbau); Dörgenhausen; Beiersdorf; Frankenthal; Niederlausitz; Möllendorf, zu Sonnewalde; Sonnewalde; Großmehßow; Saßleben; Calau; Leuthen; Wintdorf; Forst; Datten, Polen; Datyń (Polen); Gurkau, Polen; Górka (Polen); Luckau; Kreblitz; Gießmannsdorf (bei Luckau); Frankendorf; Zöllmersdorf (zu Luckau); Dobrilugk; Neuzelle; Kirchhain; Henzendorf; Fünfeichen; Wellmitz; Beeskow; Sorau, Polen; Wentdorf; Wildau-Wentdorf; Dahmetal | Keyword: Colonisation; Colonization; city/foundation; Inner colonization; Country history; preparing land for cultivation; Middle age; Immigration; Milzener; Bautzen; Name of location; Monastery; Sorbs; Local name; Church; Lusizer; Fortress; Cottbus; Assimilation

Kurmärkisch-wendischer Distrikt Kurmärkisch-wendischer Distrikt Kurmarkowstwo-serbski distrikt Kurmarkowstwo-serbski distrikt
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Kunze, Peter ; Treuer, Christoph (1556-1613); Johann Georg I. (1585-1656); Richter, Martin (1500-1585); Tharaeus, Andreas (um 1570-1638); Sigismund, Johann (1572-1619); Friedrich Wilhelm (1620-1688); Thilo, Adam (1620-1681); Friedrich I. (1657-1713); Friedrich Wilhelm I. (1688-1740); Friedrich II. (1712-1786) | Places: Teupitz; Bärwalde (bei Boxberg); Zossen; Beeskow; Storkow; Wittenberg; Frankfurt (Oder); Eberswalde | Keyword: Church policy; language monument; Language Policy; Language Policy; Administration; Country history; Lower Lusatia; Sorbs; The Thirty Years War; Serfdom; Reformation; Sorbian; December Rescript; Church; Language Bans; Cottbus

Lausitz
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Heinrich I. (876-936); Karl IV. (1316-1378) | Places: Oberlausitz; Niederlausitz; Meißen; Senftenberg; Spremberg; Muskau; Cottbus; Dresden | Keyword: Historiography; Colonisation; Milzener; Lusizer; Christianisation; Church; Dominion; Decline of Traditions; Political Turnaround,

Maćica Serbska / Maśica Serbska Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Völkel, Martin (1934-2007); Pernack, Martin (1938-2019); Schmaler, Johann Ernst (1816-1884); Seiler, Andreas (1804-1872); Mucke, Karl Ernst (1854-1932); Jordan, Heinrich (1841-1910); Schwela, Gotthold (1873-1948); Klien, Friedrich Adolph (1792-1855); Richter, Ernst (1810-1872); Hornig, Michael (1833-1894); Kalich, Karl August (1844-1900); Wuschanski, Georg (1839-1905); Zieschank, Johann Paul (1854-1923); Skala, Jacob (1851-1925); Hermann, Ernst (1871-1940); Simank, Benno (1890-1980); Mürbe, Gustav Alwin (1882-1958); Jatzwauk, Jacob (1885-1951); Wirth, Gerhard (1911-2000); Mahling, Johannes (1956); Wuschansky, Jurij (1951); Teschner, Johann Friedrich (1829-1898); Koreng, Martin (1841-1916); Nowy, Wilhelm (1870-1933); Schurmann, Peter (1961) | Places: Vetschau | Keyword: Sorabistik; Science; scientific associations; Scientific literature; Association; Cultural policy; Sorbs; Upper Lusatia; Lower Lusatia; National Rebirth; Bautzen; Cottbus; Book Clubs; Newspaper; Sorbian; School; Church; Spelling, orthography; Upper Sorbian; Literature; Calendar; Newspaper; Historiography; folklore; Music; Assimilation; Linguistics; Library of the Maćica Serbska; Wendish Museum in Bautzen; Weimar Republik; National Movement; Domowina; Wendish People’s Party; Nazi Era; House of the Sorbs; Sorbian Culture and Education Office; Sorbian Institute; Sorbian Central Library; Sorbian Culture Archive; Sorbian Museum; Young Sorbian Movement; Wendish popular bank; Political Turnaround,

Minderheitenpolitik Minderheitenpolitik Mjeńšinowa politika Mjeńšynowa politika Minority Policy
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Elle, Ludwig | Keyword: Cultural policy; Politics Education; Minority; Legal systems; Language Policy; National Movement; Assimilation; School; Church; Weimar Republik; Wends Division; Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska; Domowina; Wendish People’s Party; Nazi Era; Sorbian Law; Sorbian Institute; Institute of Sorbian Studies; German-Sorbian folk theater; Sorbian National Ensemble; radio broadcasting; Sorbian Culture and Education Office; GDR Period; Bilingualism; Foundation for the Sorbian People

Mission Mission Mision Pósołstwo Mission
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Mahling, Gertrud (1955); Ziegenbalg, Bartholomäus (1682-1719); Lehmann, Johann ; Möhne, Johannes (1745-1804); Warmow, Matthäus (1818-1898); Starik, Mjertyn (1836-1921); Kmoch, Jurij (1770-1857); Nepilas, Johanna (1807-1890); Diesner, Maria (1767-1828); Hetasch, Andreas Gustav (1831-1918); Starik, Anna (1842-1917); Bötcherec, Marja ; Jenke, Agnes (1777-1851); Chěžnikec, Marja ; Miertsching, Johann August (1817-1875); Pallmer, Andreas (1788-1862); Batš, Hendrich ; Pohlenz, Georg (1841); Wackwitz, Anna (1880-um 1970); Wehle, Frieda (1897-1984); Kowal, Gottlob (1889-1953); Lorenc, Jurij ; Imisch, Friedrich Heinrich (1819-1897); Mešcan, Mjertyn ; Brühl, Jacob ; Robel, Jacob (1853-1933) | Places: Halle (Saale); Pulsnitz; Herrnhut; Kleinwelka; Kumschütz; Bautzen; Werben; Kleinförstgen; Tzschelln; Ruben; Thräna; Uhyst/Spree; Gröditz; Schmölln; Lohsa; Hoyerswerda; Leipzig; Baruth (bei Bautzen); Rachlau, bei Hochkirch; Siebitz; Purschwitz; Neschwitz; Straupitz; Sergen; Kubschütz; Halbendorf (bei Weißwasser); Schleife; Niesky; Göda; Gebelzig; Löbau; Cottbus; Grubschütz; Radibor | Keyword: Missionary; Female missionary; Newspaper; Association; Church; Church Hymn; Sorbian; Religion; Children’s literature; Christianity; Religious Literature; Sorbs; Pietism; brethren; Book Clubs; Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska; Calendar

Nationale Wiedergeburt Nationale Wiedergeburt Narodne wozrodźenje Narodne wózroźenje Sorbian National Revival
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Kunze, Peter ; Lubensky, Andreas (1790-1840); Klien, Friedrich Adolph (1792-1855); Seiler, Andreas (1804-1872); Jordan, Johann Peter (1818-1891); Katzer, Karl August (1822-1904); Pfuhl, Christian Traugott (1825-1889) | Places: Leipzig; Wittenberg; Prag, Tschechien; Görlitz; Breslau, Polen; Bautzen | Keyword: Instruction; Culture; Nation; Romantic; Language; Student; Association; Upper Lusatia; Pietism; Wendish Preacher Society; Wendish seminary; Upper Lusatian Society of Sciences; Settlement Area; Economy; Literature; National Movement; Maćica Serbska/Maśica Serbska; Popular song; Saga; Tales; proverb; Slavic Reciprocity; Theatre; Assimilation; Serfdom; School; Serbowka; Newspaper; Bautzen; Music; Cottbus; Church; Clubs and Societies; Book Clubs; Publishing Entities; Young Sorbian Movement

Oberlausitz Oberlausitz Hornja Łužica Górna Łužyca Upper Lusatia
Theme: Culture Encyclopedia | Persons: Blaschke, Karlheinz (1927); Heinrich I. (876-936); von Merseburg, Thietmar (975-1018); Heinrich IV. (1050-1106); Ekbert II. (um 1059-1090); von Groitzsch, Wiprecht ; von Groitzsch, Heinrich (um1090-1135); Konrad III. (1093-1152); Konrad I. (um 1098-1157); Friedrich I. Barbarossa (1122-1190); von Podiebrad, Georg (1420-1471); Corvinus, Matthias (1443-1490); Ludwig II. (1506-1526); Ferdinand I. (1503-1564); Schmaler, Johann Ernst (1816-1884) | Places: Spree; Breslau, Polen; Magdeburg; Löbau; Kamenz; Hoyerswerda; Weißwasser; Meißen; Görlitz; Zittau; Lauban, Polen; Lubań (Polen); Mohács; Bischofswerda; Stolpen; Augsburg; Panschwitz-Kuckau; Prag, Tschechien; Schmalkalden; Dresden; Cottbus | Keyword: Lusatia; Colonisation; Country history; upper Sorbs; Markgraftum; Milzener; Bautzen; Fortress; Submission; Christianisation; Church; Dominion; Monastery; Hussite Wars; Catholic Region; The Thirty Years War; Decline of Traditions; Upper Lusatian Society of Sciences; National Rebirth; Domowina; Clubs and Societies; Industrialisation; lignite mining; Settlement Area; Political Turnaround,